MirBSD manpage: ExtUtils::MakeMaker(3p)

ExtUtils::MakeMakPerlpProgrammers ReferencExtUtils::MakeMaker(3p)


     ExtUtils::MakeMaker - Create a module Makefile


       use ExtUtils::MakeMaker;

       WriteMakefile( ATTRIBUTE => VALUE [, ...] );


     This utility is designed to write a Makefile for an exten-
     sion module from a Makefile.PL. It is based on the
     Makefile.SH model provided by Andy Dougherty and the

     It splits the task of generating the Makefile into several
     subroutines that can be individually overridden.  Each sub-
     routine returns the text it wishes to have written to the

     MakeMaker is object oriented. Each directory below the
     current directory that contains a Makefile.PL is treated as
     a separate object. This makes it possible to write an unlim-
     ited number of Makefiles with a single invocation of Wri-

     How To Write A Makefile.PL

     See ExtUtils::MakeMaker::Tutorial.

     The long answer is the rest of the manpage :-)

     Default Makefile Behaviour

     The generated Makefile enables the user of the extension to

       perl Makefile.PL # optionally "perl Makefile.PL verbose"
       make test        # optionally set TEST_VERBOSE=1
       make install     # See below

     The Makefile to be produced may be altered by adding argu-
     ments of the form "KEY=VALUE". E.g.

       perl Makefile.PL PREFIX=~

     Other interesting targets in the generated Makefile are

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       make config     # to check if the Makefile is up-to-date
       make clean      # delete local temp files (Makefile gets renamed)
       make realclean  # delete derived files (including ./blib)
       make ci         # check in all the files in the MANIFEST file
       make dist       # see below the Distribution Support section

     make test

     MakeMaker checks for the existence of a file named test.pl
     in the current directory and if it exists it execute the
     script with the proper set of perl "-I" options.

     MakeMaker also checks for any files matching glob("t/*.t").
     It will execute all matching files in alphabetical order via
     the Test::Harness module with the "-I" switches set

     If you'd like to see the raw output of your tests, set the
     "TEST_VERBOSE" variable to true.

       make test TEST_VERBOSE=1

     make testdb

     A useful variation of the above is the target "testdb". It
     runs the test under the Perl debugger (see perldebug). If
     the file test.pl exists in the current directory, it is used
     for the test.

     If you want to debug some other testfile, set the
     "TEST_FILE" variable thusly:

       make testdb TEST_FILE=t/mytest.t

     By default the debugger is called using "-d" option to perl.
     If you want to specify some other option, set the
     "TESTDB_SW" variable:

       make testdb TESTDB_SW=-Dx

     make install

     make alone puts all relevant files into directories that are
     named by the macros INST_LIB, INST_ARCHLIB, INST_SCRIPT,
     INST_MAN1DIR and INST_MAN3DIR.  All these default to some-
     thing below ./blib if you are not building below the perl
     source directory. If you are building below the perl source,
     INST_LIB and INST_ARCHLIB default to ../../lib, and
     INST_SCRIPT is not defined.

     The install target of the generated Makefile copies the
     files found below each of the INST_* directories to their

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     INSTALL* counterparts. Which counterparts are chosen depends
     on the setting of INSTALLDIRS according to the following

                                      INSTALLDIRS set to
                                perl        site          vendor

                      PERLPREFIX      SITEPREFIX          VENDORPREFIX

     The INSTALL... macros in turn default to their %Config
     ($Config{installprivlib}, $Config{installarchlib}, etc.)

     You can check the values of these variables on your system

         perl '-V:install.*'

     And to check the sequence in which the library directories
     are searched by perl, run

         perl -le 'print join $/, @INC'

     Sometimes older versions of the module you're installing
     live in other directories in @INC.  Because Perl loads the
     first version of a module it finds, not the newest, you
     might accidentally get one of these older versions even
     after installing a brand new version.  To delete all other
     versions of the module you're installing (not simply older
     ones) set the "UNINST" variable.

         make install UNINST=1

     PREFIX and LIB attribute

     PREFIX and LIB can be used to set several INSTALL* attri-
     butes in one go. The quickest way to install a module in a
     non-standard place might be

         perl Makefile.PL PREFIX=~

     This will install all files in the module under your home
     directory, with man pages and libraries going into an
     appropriate place (usually ~/man and ~/lib).

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     Another way to specify many INSTALL directories with a sin-
     gle parameter is LIB.

         perl Makefile.PL LIB=~/lib

     This will install the module's architecture-independent
     files into ~/lib, the architecture-dependent files into

     Note, that in both cases the tilde expansion is done by Mak-
     eMaker, not by perl by default, nor by make.

     Conflicts between parameters LIB, PREFIX and the various
     INSTALL* arguments are resolved so that:

     +   setting LIB overrides any setting of INSTALLPRIVLIB,
         they are not affected by PREFIX);

     +   without LIB, setting PREFIX replaces the initial
         $Config{prefix} part of those INSTALL* arguments, even
         if the latter are explicitly set (but are set to still
         start with $Config{prefix}).

     If the user has superuser privileges, and is not working on
     AFS or relatives, then the defaults for INSTALLPRIVLIB,
     INSTALLARCHLIB, INSTALLSCRIPT, etc. will be appropriate, and
     this incantation will be the best:

         perl Makefile.PL;
         make test
         make install

     make install per default writes some documentation of what
     has been done into the file
     "$(INSTALLARCHLIB)/perllocal.pod". This feature can be
     bypassed by calling make pure_install.

     AFS users

     will have to specify the installation directories as these
     most probably have changed since perl itself has been
     installed. They will have to do this by calling

         perl Makefile.PL INSTALLSITELIB=/afs/here/today \
             INSTALLSCRIPT=/afs/there/now INSTALLMAN3DIR=/afs/for/manpages

     Be careful to repeat this procedure every time you recompile
     an extension, unless you are sure the AFS installation
     directories are still valid.

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     Static Linking of a new Perl Binary

     An extension that is built with the above steps is ready to
     use on systems supporting dynamic loading. On systems that
     do not support dynamic loading, any newly created extension
     has to be linked together with the available resources. Mak-
     eMaker supports the linking process by creating appropriate
     targets in the Makefile whenever an extension is built. You
     can invoke the corresponding section of the makefile with

         make perl

     That produces a new perl binary in the current directory
     with all extensions linked in that can be found in
     eMaker writes a new Makefile, on UNIX, this is called
     Makefile.aperl (may be system dependent). If you want to
     force the creation of a new perl, it is recommended, that
     you delete this Makefile.aperl, so the directories are
     searched-through for linkable libraries again.

     The binary can be installed into the directory where perl
     normally resides on your machine with

         make inst_perl

     To produce a perl binary with a different name than "perl",
     either say

         perl Makefile.PL MAP_TARGET=myperl
         make myperl
         make inst_perl

     or say

         perl Makefile.PL
         make myperl MAP_TARGET=myperl
         make inst_perl MAP_TARGET=myperl

     In any case you will be prompted with the correct invocation
     of the "inst_perl" target that installs the new binary into

     make inst_perl per default writes some documentation of what
     has been done into the file
     "$(INSTALLARCHLIB)/perllocal.pod". This can be bypassed by
     calling make pure_inst_perl.

     Warning: the inst_perl: target will most probably overwrite
     your existing perl binary. Use with care!

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     Sometimes you might want to build a statically linked perl
     although your system supports dynamic loading. In this case
     you may explicitly set the linktype with the invocation of
     the Makefile.PL or make:

         perl Makefile.PL LINKTYPE=static    # recommended


         make LINKTYPE=static                # works on most systems

     Determination of Perl Library and Installation Locations

     MakeMaker needs to know, or to guess, where certain things
     are located.  Especially INST_LIB and INST_ARCHLIB (where to
     put the files during the make(1) run), PERL_LIB and
     PERL_ARCHLIB (where to read existing modules from), and
     PERL_INC (header files and "libperl*.*").

     Extensions may be built either using the contents of the
     perl source directory tree or from the installed perl
     library. The recommended way is to build extensions after
     you have run 'make install' on perl itself. You can do that
     in any directory on your hard disk that is not below the
     perl source tree. The support for extensions below the ext
     directory of the perl distribution is only good for the
     standard extensions that come with perl.

     If an extension is being built below the "ext/" directory of
     the perl source then MakeMaker will set PERL_SRC automati-
     cally (e.g., "../..").  If PERL_SRC is defined and the
     extension is recognized as a standard extension, then other
     variables default to the following:

       PERL_INC     = PERL_SRC
       PERL_LIB     = PERL_SRC/lib
       INST_LIB     = PERL_LIB

     If an extension is being built away from the perl source
     then MakeMaker will leave PERL_SRC undefined and default to
     using the installed copy of the perl library. The other
     variables default to the following:

       PERL_INC     = $archlibexp/CORE
       PERL_LIB     = $privlibexp
       PERL_ARCHLIB = $archlibexp
       INST_LIB     = ./blib/lib
       INST_ARCHLIB = ./blib/arch

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     If perl has not yet been installed then PERL_SRC can be
     defined on the command line as shown in the previous sec-

     Which architecture dependent directory?

     If you don't want to keep the defaults for the INSTALL* mac-
     ros, MakeMaker helps you to minimize the typing needed: the
     usual relationship between INSTALLPRIVLIB and INSTALLARCHLIB
     is determined by Configure at perl compilation time. Mak-
     eMaker supports the user who sets INSTALLPRIVLIB. If
     INSTALLPRIVLIB is set, but INSTALLARCHLIB not, then Mak-
     eMaker defaults the latter to be the same subdirectory of
     INSTALLPRIVLIB as Configure decided for the counterparts in
     %Config , otherwise it defaults to INSTALLPRIVLIB. The same
     relationship holds for INSTALLSITELIB and INSTALLSITEARCH.

     MakeMaker gives you much more freedom than needed to config-
     ure internal variables and get different results. It is
     worth to mention, that make(1) also lets you configure most
     of the variables that are used in the Makefile. But in the
     majority of situations this will not be necessary, and
     should only be done if the author of a package recommends it
     (or you know what you're doing).

     Using Attributes and Parameters

     The following attributes may be specified as arguments to
     WriteMakefile() or as NAME=VALUE pairs on the command line.

       One line description of the module. Will be included in
       PPD file.

       Name of the file that contains the package description.
       MakeMaker looks for a line in the POD matching
       /^($package\s-\s)(.*)/. This is typically the first line
       in the "=head1 NAME" section. $2 becomes the abstract.

       String containing name (and email address) of package
       author(s). Is used in PPD (Perl Package Description) files
       for PPM (Perl Package Manager).

       Used when creating PPD files for binary packages.  It can
       be set to a full or relative path or URL to the binary
       archive for a particular architecture.  For example:

               perl Makefile.PL BINARY_LOCATION=x86/Agent.tar.gz

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       builds a PPD package that references a binary of the
       "Agent" package, located in the "x86" directory relative
       to the PPD itself.

     C Ref to array of *.c file names. Initialised from a direc-
       tory scan and the values portion of the XS attribute hash.
       This is not currently used by MakeMaker but may be handy
       in Makefile.PLs.

       String that will be included in the compiler call command
       line between the arguments INC and OPTIMIZE.

       Arrayref. E.g. [qw(archname manext)] defines ARCHNAME &
       MANEXT from config.sh. MakeMaker will add to CONFIG the
       following values anyway: ar cc cccdlflags ccdlflags dlext
       dlsrc ld lddlflags ldflags libc lib_ext obj_ext ranlib
       sitelibexp sitearchexp so

       CODE reference. The subroutine should return a hash refer-
       ence. The hash may contain further attributes, e.g. {LIBS
       => ...}, that have to be determined by some evaluation

       Something like "-DHAVE_UNISTD_H"

       This is the root directory into which the code will be
       installed.  It prepends itself to the normal prefix.  For
       example, if your code would normally go into
       /usr/local/lib/perl you could set DESTDIR=~/tmp/ and
       installation would go into ~/tmp/usr/local/lib/perl.

       This is primarily of use for people who repackage Perl

       NOTE: Due to the nature of make, it is important that you
       put the trailing slash on your DESTDIR.  ~/tmp/ not ~/tmp.

       Ref to array of subdirectories containing Makefile.PLs
       e.g. [ 'sdbm' ] in ext/SDBM_File

       A safe filename for the package.

       Defaults to NAME above but with :: replaced with -.

       For example, Foo::Bar becomes Foo-Bar.

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       Your name for distributing the package with the version
       number included.  This is used by 'make dist' to name the
       resulting archive file.

       Defaults to DISTNAME-VERSION.

       For example, version 1.04 of Foo::Bar becomes

       On some OS's where . has special meaning VERSION_SYM may
       be used in place of VERSION.

       Hashref of symbol names for routines to be made available
       as universal symbols.  Each key/value pair consists of the
       package name and an array of routine names in that pack-
       age.  Used only under AIX, OS/2, VMS and Win32 at present.
       The routine names supplied will be expanded in the same
       way as XSUB names are expanded by the XS() macro. Defaults

         {"$(NAME)" => ["boot_$(NAME)" ] }


         {"RPC" => [qw( boot_rpcb rpcb_gettime getnetconfigent )],
          "NetconfigPtr" => [ 'DESTROY'] }

       Please see the ExtUtils::Mksymlists documentation for more
       information about the DL_FUNCS, DL_VARS and FUNCLIST

       Array of symbol names for variables to be made available
       as universal symbols. Used only under AIX, OS/2, VMS and
       Win32 at present.  Defaults to []. (e.g. [ qw(Foo_version
       Foo_numstreams Foo_tree ) ])

       Array of extension names to exclude when doing a static
       build.  This is ignored if INCLUDE_EXT is present.  Con-
       sult INCLUDE_EXT for more details.  (e.g.  [ qw( Socket
       POSIX ) ] )

       This attribute may be most useful when specified as a
       string on the command line:  perl Makefile.PL
       EXCLUDE_EXT='Socket Safe'

       Ref to array of executable files. The files will be copied
       to the INST_SCRIPT directory. Make realclean will delete

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       them from there again.

       If your executables start with something like #!perl or
       #!/usr/bin/perl MakeMaker will change this to the path of
       the perl 'Makefile.PL' was invoked with so the programs
       will be sure to run properly even if perl is not in

       The name of the Makefile to be produced.  This is used for
       the second Makefile that will be produced for the

       Defaults to 'Makefile' or 'Descrip.MMS' on VMS.

       (Note: we couldn't use MAKEFILE because dmake uses this
       for something else).

       Perl binary able to run this extension, load XS modules,

       Like PERLRUN, except it uses FULLPERL.

       Like PERLRUNINST, except it uses FULLPERL.

       This provides an alternate means to specify function names
       to be exported from the extension.  Its value is a refer-
       ence to an array of function names to be exported by the
       extension.  These names are passed through unaltered to
       the linker options file.

     H Ref to array of *.h file names. Similar to C.

       This attribute is used to specify names to be imported
       into the extension. Takes a hash ref.

       It is only used on OS/2 and Win32.

       Include file dirs eg: "-I/usr/5include -I/path/to/inc"

       Array of extension names to be included when doing a
       static build. MakeMaker will normally build with all of
       the installed extensions when doing a static build, and
       that is usually the desired behavior.  If INCLUDE_EXT is
       present then MakeMaker will build only with those

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       extensions which are explicitly mentioned. (e.g.  [ qw(
       Socket POSIX ) ])

       It is not necessary to mention DynaLoader or the current
       extension when filling in INCLUDE_EXT.  If the INCLUDE_EXT
       is mentioned but is empty then only DynaLoader and the
       current extension will be included in the build.

       This attribute may be most useful when specified as a
       string on the command line:  perl Makefile.PL
       INCLUDE_EXT='POSIX Socket Devel::Peek'

       Used by 'make install', which copies files from
       INST_ARCHLIB to this directory if INSTALLDIRS is set to

       Directory to install binary files (e.g. tkperl) into if

       Determines which of the sets of installation directories
       to choose: perl, site or vendor.  Defaults to site.

       These directories get the man pages at 'make install' time
       if INSTALLDIRS=perl.  Defaults to $Config{installman*dir}.

       If set to 'none', no man pages will be installed.

       Used by 'make install', which copies files from INST_LIB
       to this directory if INSTALLDIRS is set to perl.

       Defaults to $Config{installprivlib}.

       Used by 'make install' which copies files from INST_SCRIPT
       to this directory.

       Used by 'make install', which copies files from
       INST_ARCHLIB to this directory if INSTALLDIRS is set to
       site (default).

       Used by 'make install', which copies files from INST_BIN
       to this directory if INSTALLDIRS is set to site (default).


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       Used by 'make install', which copies files from INST_LIB
       to this directory if INSTALLDIRS is set to site (default).

       These directories get the man pages at 'make install' time
       if INSTALLDIRS=site (default).  Defaults to

       If set to 'none', no man pages will be installed.

       Used by 'make install', which copies files from
       INST_ARCHLIB to this directory if INSTALLDIRS is set to

       Used by 'make install', which copies files from INST_BIN
       to this directory if INSTALLDIRS is set to vendor.

       Used by 'make install', which copies files from INST_LIB
       to this directory if INSTALLDIRS is set to vendor.

       These directories get the man pages at 'make install' time
       if INSTALLDIRS=vendor.  Defaults to

       If set to 'none', no man pages will be installed.

       Same as INST_LIB for architecture dependent files.

       Directory to put real binary files during 'make'. These
       will be copied to INSTALLBIN during 'make install'

       Directory where we put library files of this extension
       while building it.

       Directory to hold the man pages at 'make' time

       Directory to hold the man pages at 'make' time

       Directory, where executable files should be installed dur-
       ing 'make'. Defaults to "./blib/script", just to have a

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       dummy location during testing. make install will copy the

       Program to be used to link libraries for dynamic loading.

       Defaults to $Config{ld}.

       Any special flags that might need to be passed to ld to
       create a shared library suitable for dynamic loading.  It
       is up to the makefile to use it.  (See "lddlflags" in Con-

       Defaults to $Config{lddlflags}.

       Defaults to "$(OBJECT)" and is used in the ld command to
       specify what files to link/load from (also see dynamic_lib
       below for how to specify ld flags)

       LIB should only be set at "perl Makefile.PL" time but is
       allowed as a MakeMaker argument. It has the effect of set-
       ting both INSTALLPRIVLIB and INSTALLSITELIB to that value
       regardless any explicit setting of those arguments (or of
       the corresponding architecture subdirectory.

       The filename of the perllibrary that will be used together
       with this extension. Defaults to libperl.a.

       An anonymous array of alternative library specifications
       to be searched for (in order) until at least one library
       is found. E.g.

         'LIBS' => ["-lgdbm", "-ldbm -lfoo", "-L/path -ldbm.nfs"]

       Mind, that any element of the array contains a complete
       set of arguments for the ld command. So do not specify

         'LIBS' => ["-ltcl", "-ltk", "-lX11"]

       See ODBM_File/Makefile.PL for an example, where an array
       is needed. If you specify a scalar as in

         'LIBS' => "-ltcl -ltk -lX11"

       MakeMaker will turn it into an array with one element.

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       'static' or 'dynamic' (default unless usedl=undef in
       config.sh). Should only be used to force static linking
       (also see linkext below).

       Boolean which tells MakeMaker, that it should include the
       rules to make a perl. This is handled automatically as a
       switch by MakeMaker. The user normally does not need it.

       When 'make clean' or similar is run, the $(FIRST_MAKEFILE)
       will be backed up at this location.

       Defaults to $(FIRST_MAKEFILE).old or $(FIRST_MAKEFILE)_old
       on VMS.

       Hashref of pod-containing files. MakeMaker will default
       this to all EXE_FILES files that include POD directives.
       The files listed here will be converted to man pages and
       installed as was requested at Configure time.

       Hashref that assigns to *.pm and *.pod files the files
       into which the manpages are to be written. MakeMaker
       parses all *.pod and *.pm files for POD directives. Files
       that contain POD will be the default keys of the MAN3PODS
       hashref. These will then be converted to man pages during
       "make" and will be installed during "make install".

       If it is intended, that a new perl binary be produced,
       this variable may hold a name for that binary. Defaults to

       If the extension links to a library that it builds set
       this to the name of the library (see SDBM_File)

       Perl module name for this extension (DBD::Oracle). This
       will default to the directory name but should be expli-
       citly defined in the Makefile.PL.

       MakeMaker will figure out if an extension contains link-
       able code anywhere down the directory tree, and will set
       this variable accordingly, but you can speed it up a very
       little bit if you define this boolean variable yourself.


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       Command so make does not print the literal commands its

       By setting it to an empty string you can generate a
       Makefile that prints all commands. Mainly used in debug-
       ging MakeMaker itself.

       Defaults to "@".

       Boolean.  Attribute to inhibit descending into subdirec-

       When true, suppresses the generation and addition to the
       MANIFEST of the META.yml module meta-data file during
       'make distdir'.

       Defaults to false.

       In general, any generated Makefile checks for the current
       version of MakeMaker and the version the Makefile was
       built under. If NO_VC is set, the version check is
       neglected. Do not write this into your Makefile.PL, use it
       interactively instead.

       List of object files, defaults to '$(BASEEXT)$(OBJ_EXT)',
       but can be a long string containing all object files, e.g.
       "tkpBind.o tkpButton.o tkpCanvas.o"

       (Where BASEEXT is the last component of NAME, and OBJ_EXT
       is $Config{obj_ext}.)

       Defaults to "-O". Set it to "-g" to turn debugging on. The
       flag is passed to subdirectory makes.

       Perl binary for tasks that can be done by miniperl

       Set only when MakeMaker is building the extensions of the
       Perl core distribution.

       The call to the program that is able to compile
       perlmain.c. Defaults to $(CC).

       Same as for PERL_LIB, but for architecture dependent

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       Used only when MakeMaker is building the extensions of the
       Perl core distribution (because normally $(PERL_ARCHLIB)
       is automatically in @INC, and adding it would get in the
       way of PERL5LIB).

       Directory containing the Perl library to use.

       Used only when MakeMaker is building the extensions of the
       Perl core distribution (because normally $(PERL_LIB) is
       automatically in @INC, and adding it would get in the way
       of PERL5LIB).

       defaults to 0.  Should be set to TRUE if the extension can
       work with the memory allocation routines substituted by
       the Perl malloc() subsystem. This should be applicable to
       most extensions with exceptions of those

       *   with bugs in memory allocations which are caught by
           Perl's malloc();

       *   which interact with the memory allocator in other ways
           than via malloc(), realloc(), free(), calloc(), sbrk()
           and brk();

       *   which rely on special alignment which is not provided
           by Perl's malloc().

       NOTE.  Negligence to set this flag in any one of loaded
       extension nullifies many advantages of Perl's malloc(),
       such as better usage of system resources, error detection,
       memory usage reporting, catchable failure of memory allo-
       cations, etc.

       Directory under which core modules are to be installed.

       Defaults to $Config{installprefixexp} falling back to
       $Config{installprefix}, $Config{prefixexp} or
       $Config{prefix} should $Config{installprefixexp} not

       Overridden by PREFIX.

       Use this instead of $(PERL) when you wish to run perl.  It
       will set up extra necessary flags for you.


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       Use this instead of $(PERL) when you wish to run perl to
       work with modules.  It will add things like -I$(INST_ARCH)
       and other necessary flags so perl can see the modules
       you're about to install.

       Directory containing the Perl source code (use of this
       should be avoided, it may be undefined)

       Desired permission for read/writable files. Defaults to
       644. See also "perm_rw" in MM_Unix.

       Desired permission for executable files. Defaults to 755.
       See also "perm_rwx" in MM_Unix.

       MakeMaker can run programs to generate files for you at
       build time. By default any file named *.PL (except
       Makefile.PL and Build.PL) in the top level directory will
       be assumed to be a Perl program and run passing its own
       basename in as an argument.  For example...

           perl foo.PL foo

       This behavior can be overridden by supplying your own set
       of files to search.  PL_FILES accepts a hash ref, the key
       being the file to run and the value is passed in as the
       first argument when the PL file is run.

           PL_FILES => {'bin/foobar.PL' => 'bin/foobar'}

       Would run bin/foobar.PL like this:

           perl bin/foobar.PL bin/foobar

       If multiple files from one program are desired an array
       ref can be used.

           PL_FILES => {'bin/foobar.PL' => [qw(bin/foobar1 bin/foobar2)]}

       In this case the program will be run multiple times using
       each target file.

           perl bin/foobar.PL bin/foobar1
           perl bin/foobar.PL bin/foobar2

       PL files are normally run after pm_to_blib and include
       INST_LIB and INST_ARCH in its @INC so the just built
       modules can be accessed... unless the PL file is making a
       module (or anything else in PM) in which case it is run

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       before pm_to_blib and does not include INST_LIB and
       INST_ARCH in its @INC.  This apparently odd behavior is
       there for backwards compatibility (and its somewhat DWIM).

       Hashref of .pm files and *.pl files to be installed.  e.g.

         {'name_of_file.pm' => '$(INST_LIBDIR)/install_as.pm'}

       By default this will include *.pm and *.pl and the files
       found in the PMLIBDIRS directories.  Defining PM in the
       Makefile.PL will override PMLIBDIRS.

       Ref to array of subdirectories containing library files.
       Defaults to [ 'lib', $(BASEEXT) ]. The directories will be
       scanned and any files they contain will be installed in
       the corresponding location in the library.  A libscan()
       method can be used to alter the behaviour. Defining PM in
       the Makefile.PL will override PMLIBDIRS.

       (Where BASEEXT is the last component of NAME.)

       A filter program, in the traditional Unix sense (input
       from stdin, output to stdout) that is passed on each .pm
       file during the build (in the pm_to_blib() phase).  It is
       empty by default, meaning no filtering is done.

       Great care is necessary when defining the command if quot-
       ing needs to be done.  For instance, you would need to

         {'PM_FILTER' => 'grep -v \\"^\\#\\"'}

       to remove all the leading coments on the fly during the
       build.  The extra \\ are necessary, unfortunately, because
       this variable is interpolated within the context of a Perl
       program built on the command line, and double quotes are
       what is used with the -e switch to build that command
       line.  The # is escaped for the Makefile, since what is
       going to be generated will then be:

         PM_FILTER = grep -v \"^\#\"

       Without the \\ before the #, we'd have the start of a
       Makefile comment, and the macro would be incorrectly

       Release 5.005 grandfathered old global symbol names by
       providing preprocessor macros for extension source

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       compatibility.  As of release 5.6, these preprocessor
       definitions are not available by default.  The POLLUTE
       flag specifies that the old names should still be defined:

         perl Makefile.PL POLLUTE=1

       Please inform the module author if this is necessary to
       successfully install a module under 5.6 or later.

       Name of the executable used to run "PPM_INSTALL_SCRIPT"
       below. (e.g. perl)

       Name of the script that gets executed by the Perl Package
       Manager after the installation of a package.

       This overrides all the default install locations.  Man
       pages, libraries, scripts, etc...  MakeMaker will try to
       make an educated guess about where to place things under
       the new PREFIX based on your Config defaults.  Failing
       that, it will fall back to a structure which should be
       sensible for your platform.

       If you specify LIB or any INSTALL* variables they will not
       be effected by the PREFIX.

       Bool. If this parameter is true, failing to have the
       required modules (or the right versions thereof) will be
       fatal. perl Makefile.PL will die with the proper message.

       Note: see Test::Harness for a shortcut for stopping tests
       early if you are missing dependencies.

       Do not use this parameter for simple requirements, which
       could be resolved at a later time, e.g. after an unsuc-
       cessful make test of your module.

       It is extremely rare to have to use "PREREQ_FATAL" at all!

       Hashref: Names of modules that need to be available to run
       this extension (e.g. Fcntl for SDBM_File) are the keys of
       the hash and the desired version is the value. If the
       required version number is 0, we only check if any version
       is installed already.

       Bool.  If this parameter is true, the prerequisites will
       be printed to stdout and MakeMaker will exit.  The output

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       format is an evalable hash ref.

       $PREREQ_PM = {
                      'A::B' => Vers1,
                      'C::D' => Vers2,

       RedHatism for "PREREQ_PRINT".  The output format is dif-
       ferent, though:

           perl(A::B)>=Vers1 perl(C::D)>=Vers2 ...

       Like PERLPREFIX, but only for the site install locations.

       Defaults to $Config{siteprefixexp}.  Perls prior to 5.6.0
       didn't have an explicit siteprefix in the Config.  In
       those cases $Config{installprefix} will be used.

       Overridable by PREFIX

       When true, perform the generation and addition to the MAN-
       IFEST of the SIGNATURE file in the distdir during 'make
       distdir', via 'cpansign -s'.

       Note that you need to install the Module::Signature module
       to perform this operation.

       Defaults to false.

       Arrayref. E.g. [qw(name1 name2)] skip (do not write) sec-
       tions of the Makefile. Caution! Do not use the SKIP attri-
       bute for the negligible speedup. It may seriously damage
       the resulting Makefile. Only use it if you really need it.

       Ref to array of typemap file names.  Use this when the
       typemaps are in some directory other than the current
       directory or when they are not named typemap.  The last
       typemap in the list takes precedence.  A typemap in the
       current directory has highest precedence, even if it isn't
       listed in TYPEMAPS.  The default system typemap has lowest

       Like PERLPREFIX, but only for the vendor install loca-

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       Defaults to $Config{vendorprefixexp}.

       Overridable by PREFIX

       If true, make install will be verbose

       Your version number for distributing the package.  This
       defaults to 0.1.

       Instead of specifying the VERSION in the Makefile.PL you
       can let MakeMaker parse a file to determine the version
       number. The parsing routine requires that the file named
       by VERSION_FROM contains one single line to compute the
       version number. The first line in the file that contains
       the regular expression


       will be evaluated with eval() and the value of the named
       variable after the eval() will be assigned to the VERSION
       attribute of the MakeMaker object. The following lines
       will be parsed o.k.:

           $VERSION = '1.00';
           *VERSION = \'1.01';
           $VERSION = sprintf "%d.%03d", q$Revision: 1.8 $ =~ /(\d+)/g;
           $FOO::VERSION = '1.10';
           *FOO::VERSION = \'1.11';
           our $VERSION = 1.2.3;       # new for perl5.6.0

       but these will fail:

           my $VERSION = '1.01';
           local $VERSION = '1.02';
           local $FOO::VERSION = '1.30';

       (Putting "my" or "local" on the preceding line will work

       The file named in VERSION_FROM is not added as a depen-
       dency to Makefile. This is not really correct, but it
       would be a major pain during development to have to
       rewrite the Makefile for any smallish change in that file.
       If you want to make sure that the Makefile contains the
       correct VERSION macro after any change of the file, you
       would have to do something like

           depend => { Makefile => '$(VERSION_FROM)' }

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       See attribute "depend" below.

       A sanitized VERSION with . replaced by _.  For places
       where . has special meaning (some filesystems, RCS labels,

       Hashref of .xs files. MakeMaker will default this.  e.g.

         {'name_of_file.xs' => 'name_of_file.c'}

       The .c files will automatically be included in the list of
       files deleted by a make clean.

       String of options to pass to xsubpp.  This might include
       "-C++" or "-extern".  Do not include typemaps here; the
       TYPEMAP parameter exists for that purpose.

       May be set to an empty string, which is identical to
       "-prototypes", or "-noprototypes". See the xsubpp documen-
       tation for details. MakeMaker defaults to the empty

       Your version number for the .xs file of this package.
       This defaults to the value of the VERSION attribute.

     Additional lowercase attributes

     can be used to pass parameters to the methods which imple-
     ment that part of the Makefile.  Parameters are specified as
     a hash ref but are passed to the method as a hash.

         {FILES => "*.xyz foo"}

         {ANY_TARGET => ANY_DEPENDECY, ...}

       (ANY_TARGET must not be given a double-colon rule by Mak-

         {TARFLAGS => 'cvfF', COMPRESS => 'gzip', SUFFIX => '.gz',
         SHAR => 'shar -m', DIST_CP => 'ln', ZIP => '/bin/zip',
         ZIPFLAGS => '-rl', DIST_DEFAULT => 'private tardist' }

       If you specify COMPRESS, then SUFFIX should also be
       altered, as it is needed to tell make the target file of

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       the compression. Setting DIST_CP to ln can be useful, if
       you need to preserve the timestamps on your files. DIST_CP
       can take the values 'cp', which copies the file, 'ln',
       which links the file, and 'best' which copies symbolic
       links and links the rest. Default is 'best'.

         {ARMAYBE => 'ar', OTHERLDFLAGS => '...', INST_DYNAMIC_DEP => '...'}

         {LINKTYPE => 'static', 'dynamic' or ''}

       NB: Extensions that have nothing but *.pm files had to say

         {LINKTYPE => ''}

       with Pre-5.0 MakeMakers. Since version 5.00 of MakeMaker
       such a line can be deleted safely. MakeMaker recognizes
       when there's nothing to be linked.

         {ANY_MACRO => ANY_VALUE, ...}

       Anything put here will be passed to MY::postamble() if you
       have one.

         {FILES => '$(INST_ARCHAUTODIR)/*.xyz'}

         {TESTS => 't/*.t'}

         {MAXLEN => 8}

     Overriding MakeMaker Methods

     If you cannot achieve the desired Makefile behaviour by
     specifying attributes you may define private subroutines in
     the Makefile.PL. Each subroutine returns the text it wishes
     to have written to the Makefile. To override a section of
     the Makefile you can either say:

             sub MY::c_o { "new literal text" }

     or you can edit the default by saying something like:

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             package MY; # so that "SUPER" works right
             sub c_o {
                 my $inherited = shift->SUPER::c_o(@_);
                 $inherited =~ s/old text/new text/;

     If you are running experiments with embedding perl as a
     library into other applications, you might find MakeMaker is
     not sufficient. You'd better have a look at ExtUtils::Embed
     which is a collection of utilities for embedding.

     If you still need a different solution, try to develop
     another subroutine that fits your needs and submit the diffs
     to "makemaker@perl.org"

     For a complete description of all MakeMaker methods see

     Here is a simple example of how to add a new target to the
     generated Makefile:

         sub MY::postamble {
             return <<'MAKE_FRAG';
         $(MYEXTLIB): sdbm/Makefile
                 cd sdbm && $(MAKE) all


     The End Of Cargo Cult Programming

     WriteMakefile() now does some basic sanity checks on its
     parameters to protect against typos and malformatted values.
     This means some things which happened to work in the past
     will now throw warnings and possibly produce internal

     Some of the most common mistakes:

     "MAN3PODS => ' '"
       This is commonly used to supress the creation of man
       pages.  MAN3PODS takes a hash ref not a string, but the
       above worked by accident in old versions of MakeMaker.

       The correct code is "MAN3PODS => { }".

     Hintsfile support

     MakeMaker.pm uses the architecture specific information from
     Config.pm. In addition it evaluates architecture specific
     hints files in a "hints/" directory. The hints files are

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     expected to be named like their counterparts in
     "PERL_SRC/hints", but with an ".pl" file name extension (eg.
     "next_3_2.pl"). They are simply "eval"ed by MakeMaker within
     the WriteMakefile() subroutine, and can be used to execute
     commands as well as to include special variables. The rules
     which hintsfile is chosen are the same as in Configure.

     The hintsfile is eval()ed immediately after the arguments
     given to WriteMakefile are stuffed into a hash reference
     $self but before this reference becomes blessed. So if you
     want to do the equivalent to override or create an attribute
     you would say something like

         $self->{LIBS} = ['-ldbm -lucb -lc'];

     Distribution Support

     For authors of extensions MakeMaker provides several
     Makefile targets. Most of the support comes from the
     ExtUtils::Manifest module, where additional documentation
     can be found.

     make distcheck
         reports which files are below the build directory but
         not in the MANIFEST file and vice versa. (See
         ExtUtils::Manifest::fullcheck() for details)

     make skipcheck
         reports which files are skipped due to the entries in
         the "MANIFEST.SKIP" file (See
         ExtUtils::Manifest::skipcheck() for details)

     make distclean
         does a realclean first and then the distcheck. Note that
         this is not needed to build a new distribution as long
         as you are sure that the MANIFEST file is ok.

     make manifest
         rewrites the MANIFEST file, adding all remaining files
         found (See ExtUtils::Manifest::mkmanifest() for details)

     make distdir
         Copies all the files that are in the MANIFEST file to a
         newly created directory with the name
         "$(DISTNAME)-$(VERSION)". If that directory exists, it
         will be removed first.

         Additionally, it will create a META.yml module meta-data
         file in the distdir and add this to the distdir's MANFI-
         EST.  You can shut this behavior off with the NO_META

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     make disttest
         Makes a distdir first, and runs a "perl Makefile.PL", a
         make, and a make test in that directory.

     make tardist
         First does a distdir. Then a command $(PREOP) which
         defaults to a null command, followed by $(TOUNIX), which
         defaults to a null command under UNIX, and will convert
         files in distribution directory to UNIX format other-
         wise. Next it runs "tar" on that directory into a tar-
         file and deletes the directory. Finishes with a command
         $(POSTOP) which defaults to a null command.

     make dist
         Defaults to $(DIST_DEFAULT) which in turn defaults to

     make uutardist
         Runs a tardist first and uuencodes the tarfile.

     make shdist
         First does a distdir. Then a command $(PREOP) which
         defaults to a null command. Next it runs "shar" on that
         directory into a sharfile and deletes the intermediate
         directory again. Finishes with a command $(POSTOP) which
         defaults to a null command.  Note: For shdist to work
         properly a "shar" program that can handle directories is

     make zipdist
         First does a distdir. Then a command $(PREOP) which
         defaults to a null command. Runs "$(ZIP) $(ZIPFLAGS)" on
         that directory into a zipfile. Then deletes that direc-
         tory. Finishes with a command $(POSTOP) which defaults
         to a null command.

     make ci
         Does a $(CI) and a $(RCS_LABEL) on all files in the MAN-
         IFEST file.

     Customization of the dist targets can be done by specifying
     a hash reference to the dist attribute of the WriteMakefile
     call. The following parameters are recognized:

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         CI           ('ci -u')
         COMPRESS     ('gzip --best')
         POSTOP       ('@ :')
         PREOP        ('@ :')
         TO_UNIX      (depends on the system)
         RCS_LABEL    ('rcs -q -Nv$(VERSION_SYM):')
         SHAR         ('shar')
         SUFFIX       ('.gz')
         TAR          ('tar')
         TARFLAGS     ('cvf')
         ZIP          ('zip')
         ZIPFLAGS     ('-r')

     An example:

         WriteMakefile( 'dist' => { COMPRESS=>"bzip2", SUFFIX=>".bz2" })

     Module Meta-Data

     Long plaguing users of MakeMaker based modules has been the
     problem of getting basic information about the module out of
     the sources without running the Makefile.PL and doing a
     bunch of messy heuristics on the resulting Makefile.  To
     this end a simple module meta-data file has been introduced,

     META.yml is a YAML document (see http://www.yaml.org) con-
     taining basic information about the module (name, version,
     prerequisites...) in an easy to read format.  The format is
     developed and defined by the Module::Build developers (see

     MakeMaker will automatically generate a META.yml file for
     you and add it to your MANIFEST as part of the 'distdir'
     target (and thus the 'dist' target).  This is intended to
     seamlessly and rapidly populate CPAN with module meta-data.
     If you wish to shut this feature off, set the "NO_META"
     "WriteMakefile()" flag to true.

     Disabling an extension

     If some events detected in Makefile.PL imply that there is
     no way to create the Module, but this is a normal state of
     things, then you can create a Makefile which does nothing,
     but succeeds on all the "usual" build targets.  To do so,


     instead of WriteMakefile().

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     This may be useful if other modules expect this module to be
     built OK, as opposed to work OK (say, this system-dependent
     module builds in a subdirectory of some other distribution,
     or is listed as a dependency in a CPAN::Bundle, but the
     functionality is supported by different means on the current

     Other Handy Functions

             my $value = prompt($message);
             my $value = prompt($message, $default);

         The "prompt()" function provides an easy way to request
         user input used to write a makefile.  It displays the
         $message as a prompt for input.  If a $default is pro-
         vided it will be used as a default.  The function
         returns the $value selected by the user.

         If "prompt()" detects that it is not running interac-
         tively and there is nothing on STDIN or if the
         PERL_MM_USE_DEFAULT environment variable is set to true,
         the $default will be used without prompting.  This
         prevents automated processes from blocking on user

         If no $default is provided an empty string will be used


         Command line options used by "MakeMaker->new()", and
         thus by "WriteMakefile()".  The string is split on whi-
         tespace, and the result is processed before any actual
         command line arguments are processed.

         If set to a true value then MakeMaker's prompt function
         will always return the default without waiting for user

         Same as the PERL_CORE parameter.  The parameter over-
         rides this.


     ExtUtils::MM_Unix, ExtUtils::Manifest ExtUtils::Install,


     Andy Dougherty "doughera@lafayette.edu", Andreas Koenig
     "andreas.koenig@mind.de", Tim Bunce "timb@cpan.org".  VMS

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ExtUtils::MakeMakPerlpProgrammers ReferencExtUtils::MakeMaker(3p)

     support by Charles Bailey "bailey@newman.upenn.edu".  OS/2
     support by Ilya Zakharevich "ilya@math.ohio-state.edu".

     Currently maintained by Michael G Schwern

     Send patches and ideas to "makemaker@perl.org".

     Send bug reports via http://rt.cpan.org/.  Please send your
     generated Makefile along with your report.

     For more up-to-date information, see


     This program is free software; you can redistribute it
     and/or modify it under the same terms as Perl itself.

     See <http://www.perl.com/perl/misc/Artistic.html>

perl v5.8.8                2005-02-05                          29

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