MirBSD manpage: Test::Harness::TAP(3p)

Test::Harness::TAPerl)Programmers ReferenceTest::Harness::TAP(3p)


     Test::Harness::TAP - Documentation for the TAP format


     TAP, the Test Anything Protocol, is Perl's simple text-based
     interface between testing modules such as Test::More and the
     test harness Test::Harness.


     Exit code of the process.


     TAP's general format is:

         ok 1 Description # Directive
         # Diagnostic
         ok 47 Description
         ok 48 Description
         more tests....

     For example, a test file's output might look like:

         ok 1 - Input file opened
         not ok 2 - First line of the input valid
         ok 3 - Read the rest of the file
         not ok 4 - Summarized correctly # TODO Not written yet


     In this document, the "harness" is any program analyzing TAP
     output. Typically this will be Perl's prove program, or the
     underlying "Test::Harness::runtests" subroutine.

     A harness must only read TAP output from standard output and
     not from standard error.  Lines written to standard output
     matching "/^(not )?ok\b/" must be interpreted as test lines.
     All other lines must not be considered test output.


     The plan

     The plan tells how many tests will be run, or how many tests
     have run.  It's a check that the test file hasn't stopped
     prematurely. It must appear once, whether at the beginning
     or end of the output.

     The plan is usually the first line of TAP output and it
     specifies how many test points are to follow. For example,

perl v5.8.8                2005-02-05                           1

Test::Harness::TAPerl)Programmers ReferenceTest::Harness::TAP(3p)


     means you plan on running 10 tests. This is a safeguard in
     case your test file dies silently in the middle of its run.
     The plan is optional but if there is a plan before the test
     points it must be the first non-diagnostic line output by
     the test file.

     In certain instances a test file may not know how many test
     points it will ultimately be running. In this case the plan
     can be the last non-diagnostic line in the output.

     The plan cannot appear in the middle of the output, nor can
     it appear more than once.

     The test line

     The core of TAP is the test line.  A test file prints one
     test line test point executed. There must be at least one
     test line in TAP output. Each test line comprises the fol-
     lowing elements:

     * "ok" or "not ok"
         This tells whether the test point passed or failed. It
         must be at the beginning of the line. "/^not ok/" indi-
         cates a failed test point. "/^ok/" is a successful test
         point. This is the only mandatory part of the line.

         Note that unlike the Directives below, "ok" and "not ok"
         are case-sensitive.

     * Test number
         TAP expects the "ok" or "not ok" to be followed by a
         test point number. If there is no number the harness
         must maintain its own counter until the script supplies
         test numbers again. So the following test output

             not ok
             not ok

         has five tests.  The sixth is missing.  Test::Harness
         will generate

             FAILED tests 1, 3, 6
             Failed 3/6 tests, 50.00% okay

     * Description
         Any text after the test number but before a "#" is the

perl v5.8.8                2005-02-05                           2

Test::Harness::TAPerl)Programmers ReferenceTest::Harness::TAP(3p)

         description of the test point.

             ok 42 this is the description of the test

         Descriptions should not begin with a digit so that they
         are not confused with the test point number.

         The harness may do whatever it wants with the descrip-

     * Directive
         The test point may include a directive, following a hash
         on the test line.  There are currently two directives
         allowed: "TODO" and "SKIP".  These are discussed below.

     To summarize:

     * ok/not ok (required)
     * Test number (recommended)
     * Description (recommended)
     * Directive (only when necessary)


     Directives are special notes that follow a "#" on the test
     line. Only two are currently defined: "TODO" and "SKIP".
     Note that these two keywords are not case-sensitive.

     TODO tests

     If the directive starts with "# TODO", the test is counted
     as a todo test, and the text after "TODO" is the explana-

         not ok 13 # TODO bend space and time

     Note that if the TODO has an explanation it must be
     separated from "TODO" by a space.

     These tests represent a feature to be implemented or a bug
     to be fixed and act as something of an executable "things to
     do" list.  They are not expected to succeed.  Should a todo
     test point begin succeeding, the harness should report it as
     a bonus.  This indicates that whatever you were supposed to
     do has been done and you should promote this to a normal
     test point.

     Skipping tests

     If the directive starts with "# SKIP", the test is counted
     as having been skipped.  If the whole test file succeeds,
     the count of skipped tests is included in the generated out-
     put.  The harness should report the text after " #

perl v5.8.8                2005-02-05                           3

Test::Harness::TAPerl)Programmers ReferenceTest::Harness::TAP(3p)

     SKIP\S*\s+" as a reason for skipping.

         ok 23 # skip Insufficient flogiston pressure.

     Similarly, one can include an explanation in a plan line,
     emitted if the test file is skipped completely:

         1..0 # Skipped: WWW::Mechanize not installed


     Bail out!

     As an emergency measure a test script can decide that
     further tests are useless (e.g. missing dependencies) and
     testing should stop immediately. In that case the test
     script prints the magic words

         Bail out!

     to standard output. Any message after these words must be
     displayed by the interpreter as the reason why testing must
     be stopped, as in

         Bail out! MySQL is not running.


     Additional information may be put into the testing output on
     separate lines.  Diagnostic lines should begin with a "#",
     which the harness must ignore, at least as far as analyzing
     the test results.  The harness is free, however, to display
     the diagnostics.  Typically diagnostics are used to provide
     information about the environment in which test file is run-
     ning, or to delineate a group of tests.

         ok 18 - Closed database connection
         # End of database section.
         # This starts the network part of the test.
         # Daemon started on port 2112
         ok 19 - Opened socket
         ok 47 - Closed socket
         # End of network tests

     Anything else

     Any output line that is not a plan, a test line or a diag-
     nostic is incorrect.  How a harness handles the incorrect
     line is undefined. Test::Harness silently ignores incorrect
     lines, but will become more stringent in the future.

perl v5.8.8                2005-02-05                           4

Test::Harness::TAPerl)Programmers ReferenceTest::Harness::TAP(3p)


     All names, places, and events depicted in any example are
     wholly fictitious and bear no resemblance to, connection
     with, or relation to any real entity. Any such similarity is
     purely coincidental, unintentional, and unintended.

     Common with explanation

     The following TAP listing declares that six tests follow as
     well as provides handy feedback as to what the test is about
     to do. All six tests pass.

         # Create a new Board and Tile, then place
         # the Tile onto the board.
         ok 1 - The object isa Board
         ok 2 - Board size is zero
         ok 3 - The object isa Tile
         ok 4 - Get possible places to put the Tile
         ok 5 - Placing the tile produces no error
         ok 6 - Board size is 1

     Unknown amount and failures

     This hypothetical test program ensures that a handful of
     servers are online and network-accessible. Because it
     retrieves the hypothetical servers from a database, it
     doesn't know exactly how many servers it will need to ping.
     Thus, the test count is declared at the bottom after all the
     test points have run. Also, two of the tests fail.

         ok 1 - retrieving servers from the database
         # need to ping 6 servers
         ok 2 - pinged diamond
         ok 3 - pinged ruby
         not ok 4 - pinged saphire
         ok 5 - pinged onyx
         not ok 6 - pinged quartz
         ok 7 - pinged gold

     Giving up

     This listing reports that a pile of tests are going to be
     run. However, the first test fails, reportedly because a
     connection to the database could not be established. The
     program decided that continuing was pointless and exited.

perl v5.8.8                2005-02-05                           5

Test::Harness::TAPerl)Programmers ReferenceTest::Harness::TAP(3p)

         not ok 1 - database handle
         Bail out! Couldn't connect to database.

     Skipping a few

     The following listing plans on running 5 tests. However, our
     program decided to not run tests 2 thru 5 at all. To prop-
     erly report this, the tests are marked as being skipped.

         ok 1 - approved operating system
         # $^0 is solaris
         ok 2 - # SKIP no /sys directory
         ok 3 - # SKIP no /sys directory
         ok 4 - # SKIP no /sys directory
         ok 5 - # SKIP no /sys directory

     Skipping everything

     This listing shows that the entire listing is a skip. No
     tests were run.

         1..0 # skip because English-to-French translator isn't installed

     Got spare tuits?

     The following example reports that four tests are run and
     the last two tests failed. However, because the failing
     tests are marked as things to do later, they are considered
     successes. Thus, a harness should report this entire listing
     as a success.

         ok 1 - Creating test program
         ok 2 - Test program runs, no error
         not ok 3 - infinite loop # TODO halting problem unsolved
         not ok 4 - infinite loop 2 # TODO halting problem unsolved

     Creative liberties

     This listing shows an alternate output where the test
     numbers aren't provided. The test also reports the state of
     a ficticious board game in diagnostic form. Finally, the
     test count is reported at the end.

perl v5.8.8                2005-02-05                           6

Test::Harness::TAPerl)Programmers ReferenceTest::Harness::TAP(3p)

         ok - created Board
         # +------+------+------+------+
         # |      |16G   |      |05C   |
         # |      |G N C |      |C C G |
         # |      |  G   |      |  C  +|
         # +------+------+------+------+
         # |10C   |01G   |      |03C   |
         # |R N G |G A G |      |C C C |
         # |  R   |  G   |      |  C  +|
         # +------+------+------+------+
         # |      |01G   |17C   |00C   |
         # |      |G A G |G N R |R N R |
         # |      |  G   |  R   |  G   |
         # +------+------+------+------+
         ok - board has 7 tiles + starter tile


     Andy Lester, based on the original Test::Harness documenta-
     tion by Michael Schwern.


     Thanks to Pete Krawczyk, Paul Johnson, Ian Langworth and Nik
     Clayton for help and contributions on this document.

     The basis for the TAP format was created by Larry Wall in
     the original test script for Perl 1.  Tim Bunce and Andreas
     Koenig developed it further with their modifications to


     Copyright 2003-2005 by Michael G Schwern
     "<schwern@pobox.com>", Andy Lester "<andy@petdance.com>".

     This program is free software; you can redistribute it
     and/or modify it under the same terms as Perl itself.

     See <http://www.perl.com/perl/misc/Artistic.html>.

perl v5.8.8                2005-02-05                           7

Generated on 2022-12-24 01:00:14 by $MirOS: src/scripts/roff2htm,v 1.113 2022/12/21 23:14:31 tg Exp $ — This product includes material provided by mirabilos.

These manual pages and other documentation are copyrighted by their respective writers; their sources are available at the project’s CVSweb, AnonCVS and other mirrors. The rest is Copyright © 2002–2022 MirBSD.

This manual page’s HTML representation is supposed to be valid XHTML/1.1; if not, please send a bug report — diffs preferred.

Kontakt / Impressum & Datenschutzerklärung