MirBSD manpage: Unicode::Collate(3p)

Unicode::Collate(Perl Programmers Reference GUnicode::Collate(3p)


     Unicode::Collate - Unicode Collation Algorithm


       use Unicode::Collate;

       $Collator = Unicode::Collate->new(%tailoring);

       @sorted = $Collator->sort(@not_sorted);

       $result = $Collator->cmp($a, $b); # returns 1, 0, or -1.

       # If %tailoring is false (i.e. empty),
       # $Collator should do the default collation.


     This module is an implementation of Unicode Technical Stan-
     dard #10 (a.k.a. UTS #10) - Unicode Collation Algorithm
     (a.k.a. UCA).

     Constructor and Tailoring

     The "new" method returns a collator object.

        $Collator = Unicode::Collate->new(
           UCA_Version => $UCA_Version,
           alternate => $alternate, # deprecated: use of 'variable' is recommended.
           backwards => $levelNumber, # or \@levelNumbers
           entry => $element,
           hangul_terminator => $term_primary_weight,
           ignoreName => qr/$ignoreName/,
           ignoreChar => qr/$ignoreChar/,
           katakana_before_hiragana => $bool,
           level => $collationLevel,
           normalization  => $normalization_form,
           overrideCJK => \&overrideCJK,
           overrideHangul => \&overrideHangul,
           preprocess => \&preprocess,
           rearrange => \@charList,
           table => $filename,
           undefName => qr/$undefName/,
           undefChar => qr/$undefChar/,
           upper_before_lower => $bool,
           variable => $variable,

         If the tracking version number of UCA is given, behavior
         of that tracking version is emulated on collating. If

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         omitted, the return value of "UCA_Version()" is used.
         "UCA_Version()" should return the latest tracking ver-
         sion supported.

         The supported tracking version: 8, 9, 11, or 14.

              UCA       Unicode Standard         DUCET (@version)
               8              3.1                3.0.1 (3.0.1d9)
               9     3.1 with Corrigendum 3      3.1.1 (3.1.1)
              11              4.0                4.0.0 (4.0.0)
              14             4.1.0               4.1.0 (4.1.0)

         Note: Recent UTS #10 renames "Tracking Version" to

         -- see 3.2.2 Alternate Weighting, version 8 of UTS #10

         For backward compatibility, "alternate" (old name) can
         be used as an alias for "variable".

         -- see 3.1.2 French Accents, UTS #10.

              backwards => $levelNumber or \@levelNumbers

         Weights in reverse order; ex. level 2 (diacritic order-
         ing) in French. If omitted, forwards at all the levels.

         -- see 3.1 Linguistic Features; 3.2.1 File Format, UTS

         If the same character (or a sequence of characters)
         exists in the collation element table through "table",
         mapping to collation elements is overrided. If it does
         not exist, the mapping is defined additionally.

             entry => <<'ENTRY', # for DUCET v4.0.0 (allkeys-4.0.0.txt)
         0063 0068 ; [.0E6A.0020.0002.0063] # ch
         0043 0068 ; [.0E6A.0020.0007.0043] # Ch
         0043 0048 ; [.0E6A.0020.0008.0043] # CH
         006C 006C ; [.0F4C.0020.0002.006C] # ll
         004C 006C ; [.0F4C.0020.0007.004C] # Ll
         004C 004C ; [.0F4C.0020.0008.004C] # LL
         00F1      ; [.0F7B.0020.0002.00F1] # n-tilde
         006E 0303 ; [.0F7B.0020.0002.00F1] # n-tilde
         00D1      ; [.0F7B.0020.0008.00D1] # N-tilde
         004E 0303 ; [.0F7B.0020.0008.00D1] # N-tilde

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             entry => <<'ENTRY', # for DUCET v4.0.0 (allkeys-4.0.0.txt)
         00E6 ; [.0E33.0020.0002.00E6][.0E8B.0020.0002.00E6] # ae ligature as <a><e>
         00C6 ; [.0E33.0020.0008.00C6][.0E8B.0020.0008.00C6] # AE ligature as <A><E>

         NOTE: The code point in the UCA file format (before ';')
         must be a Unicode code point (defined as hexadecimal),
         but not a native code point. So 0063 must always denote
         "U+0063", but not a character of "\x63".

         Weighting may vary depending on collation element table.
         So ensure the weights defined in "entry" will be con-
         sistent with those in the collation element table loaded
         via "table".

         In DUCET v4.0.0, primary weight of "C" is 0E60 and that
         of "D" is "0E6D". So setting primary weight of "CH" to
         "0E6A" (as a value between 0E60 and "0E6D") makes order-
         ing as "C < CH < D". Exactly speaking DUCET already has
         some characters between "C" and "D": "small capital C"
         ("U+1D04") with primary weight 0E64, "c-hook/C-hook"
         ("U+0188/U+0187") with 0E65, and "c-curl" ("U+0255")
         with 0E69. Then primary weight "0E6A" for "CH" makes
         "CH" ordered between "c-curl" and "D".

         -- see 7.1.4 Trailing Weights, UTS #10.

         If a true value is given (non-zero but should be posi-
         tive), it will be added as a terminator primary weight
         to the end of every standard Hangul syllable. Secondary
         and any higher weights for terminator are set to zero.
         If the value is false or "hangul_terminator" key does
         not exist, insertion of terminator weights will not be

         Boundaries of Hangul syllables are determined according
         to conjoining Jamo behavior in the Unicode Standard and

         Implementation Note: (1) For expansion mapping (Unicode
         character mapped to a sequence of collation elements), a
         terminator will not be added between collation elements,
         even if Hangul syllable boundary exists there. Addition
         of terminator is restricted to the next position to the
         last collation element.

         (2) Non-conjoining Hangul letters (Compatibility Jamo,
         halfwidth Jamo, and enclosed letters) are not automati-
         cally terminated with a terminator primary weight. These
         characters may need terminator included in a collation
         element table beforehand.

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         -- see 3.2.2 Variable Weighting, UTS #10.

         Makes the entry in the table completely ignorable; i.e.
         as if the weights were zero at all level.

         Through "ignoreChar", any character matching
         "qr/$ignoreChar/" will be ignored. Through "ignoreName",
         any character whose name (given in the "table" file as a
         comment) matches "qr/$ignoreName/" will be ignored.

         E.g. when 'a' and 'e' are ignorable, 'element' is equal
         to 'lament' (or 'lmnt').

         -- see 7.3.1 Tertiary Weight Table, UTS #10.

         By default, hiragana is before katakana. If the parame-
         ter is made true, this is reversed.

         NOTE: This parameter simplemindedly assumes that any
         hiragana/katakana distinctions must occur in level 3,
         and their weights at level 3 must be same as those men-
         tioned in 7.3.1, UTS #10. If you define your collation
         elements which violate this requirement, this parameter
         does not work validly.

         -- see 4.3 Form Sort Key, UTS #10.

         Set the maximum level. Any higher levels than the speci-
         fied one are ignored.

           Level 1: alphabetic ordering
           Level 2: diacritic ordering
           Level 3: case ordering
           Level 4: tie-breaking (e.g. in the case when variable is 'shifted')

           ex.level => 2,

         If omitted, the maximum is the 4th.

         -- see 4.1 Normalize, UTS #10.

         If specified, strings are normalized before preparation
         of sort keys (the normalization is executed after

         A form name "Unicode::Normalize::normalize()" accepts
         will be applied as $normalization_form. Acceptable names

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         include 'NFD', 'NFC', 'NFKD', and 'NFKC'. See
         "Unicode::Normalize::normalize()" for detail. If omit-
         ted, 'NFD' is used.

         "normalization" is performed after "preprocess" (if

         Furthermore, special values, "undef" and "prenormal-
         ized", can be used, though they are not concerned with

         If "undef" (not a string "undef") is passed explicitly
         as the value for this key, any normalization is not car-
         ried out (this may make tailoring easier if any normali-
         zation is not desired). Under "(normalization =>
         undef)", only contiguous contractions are resolved; e.g.
         even if "A-ring" (and "A-ring-cedilla") is ordered after
         "Z", "A-cedilla-ring" would be primary equal to "A". In
         this point, "(normalization => undef, preprocess => sub
         { NFD(shift) })" is not equivalent to "(normalization =>

         In the case of "(normalization => "prenormalized")", any
         normalization is not performed, but non-contiguous con-
         tractions with combining characters are performed.
         Therefore "(normalization => 'prenormalized', preprocess
         => sub { NFD(shift) })" is equivalent to "(normalization
         => 'NFD')". If source strings are finely prenormalized,
         "(normalization => 'prenormalized')" may save time for

         Except "(normalization => undef)", Unicode::Normalize is
         required (see also CAVEAT).

         -- see 7.1 Derived Collation Elements, UTS #10.

         By default, CJK Unified Ideographs are ordered in
         Unicode codepoint order but "CJK Unified Ideographs" (if
         "UCA_Version" is 8 to 11, its range is "U+4E00..U+9FA5";
         if "UCA_Version" is 14, its range is "U+4E00..U+9FBB")
         are lesser than "CJK Unified Ideographs Extension" (its
         range is "U+3400..U+4DB5" and "U+20000..U+2A6D6").

         Through "overrideCJK", ordering of CJK Unified Ideo-
         graphs can be overrided.

         ex. CJK Unified Ideographs in the JIS code point order.

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           overrideCJK => sub {
               my $u = shift;             # get a Unicode codepoint
               my $b = pack('n', $u);     # to UTF-16BE
               my $s = your_unicode_to_sjis_converter($b); # convert
               my $n = unpack('n', $s);   # convert sjis to short
               [ $n, 0x20, 0x2, $u ];     # return the collation element

         ex. ignores all CJK Unified Ideographs.

           overrideCJK => sub {()}, # CODEREF returning empty list

            # where ->eq("Pe\x{4E00}rl", "Perl") is true
            # as U+4E00 is a CJK Unified Ideograph and to be ignorable.

         If "undef" is passed explicitly as the value for this
         key, weights for CJK Unified Ideographs are treated as
         undefined. But assignment of weight for CJK Unified Ide-
         ographs in table or "entry" is still valid.

         -- see 7.1 Derived Collation Elements, UTS #10.

         By default, Hangul Syllables are decomposed into Hangul
         Jamo, even if "(normalization => undef)". But the map-
         ping of Hangul Syllables may be overrided.

         This parameter works like "overrideCJK", so see there
         for examples.

         If you want to override the mapping of Hangul Syllables,
         NFD, NFKD, and FCD are not appropriate, since they will
         decompose Hangul Syllables before overriding.

         If "undef" is passed explicitly as the value for this
         key, weight for Hangul Syllables is treated as undefined
         without decomposition into Hangul Jamo. But definition
         of weight for Hangul Syllables in table or "entry" is
         still valid.

         -- see 5.1 Preprocessing, UTS #10.

         If specified, the coderef is used to preprocess before
         the formation of sort keys.

         ex. dropping English articles, such as "a" or "the".
         Then, "the pen" is before "a pencil".

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              preprocess => sub {
                    my $str = shift;
                    $str =~ s/\b(?:an?|the)\s+//gi;
                    return $str;

         "preprocess" is performed before "normalization" (if

         -- see 3.1.3 Rearrangement, UTS #10.

         Characters that are not coded in logical order and to be
         rearranged. If "UCA_Version" is equal to or lesser than
         11, default is:

             rearrange => [ 0x0E40..0x0E44, 0x0EC0..0x0EC4 ],

         If you want to disallow any rearrangement, pass "undef"
         or "[]" (a reference to empty list) as the value for
         this key.

         If "UCA_Version" is equal to 14, default is "[]" (i.e.
         no rearrangement).

         According to the version 9 of UCA, this parameter shall
         not be used; but it is not warned at present.

         -- see 3.2 Default Unicode Collation Element Table, UTS

         You can use another collation element table if desired.

         The table file should locate in the Unicode/Collate
         directory on @INC. Say, if the filename is Foo.txt, the
         table file is searched as Unicode/Collate/Foo.txt in

         By default, allkeys.txt (as the filename of DUCET) is
         used. If you will prepare your own table file, any name
         other than allkeys.txt may be better to avoid namespace

         If "undef" is passed explicitly as the value for this
         key, no file is read (but you can define collation ele-
         ments via "entry").

         A typical way to define a collation element table
         without any file of table:

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            $onlyABC = Unicode::Collate->new(
                table => undef,
                entry => << 'ENTRIES',
         0061 ; [.0101.0020.0002.0061] # LATIN SMALL LETTER A
         0041 ; [.0101.0020.0008.0041] # LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A
         0062 ; [.0102.0020.0002.0062] # LATIN SMALL LETTER B
         0042 ; [.0102.0020.0008.0042] # LATIN CAPITAL LETTER B
         0063 ; [.0103.0020.0002.0063] # LATIN SMALL LETTER C
         0043 ; [.0103.0020.0008.0043] # LATIN CAPITAL LETTER C

         If "ignoreName" or "undefName" is used, character names
         should be specified as a comment (following "#") on each

         -- see 6.3.4 Reducing the Repertoire, UTS #10.

         Undefines the collation element as if it were unassigned
         in the table. This reduces the size of the table. If an
         unassigned character appears in the string to be col-
         lated, the sort key is made from its codepoint as a
         single-character collation element, as it is greater
         than any other assigned collation elements (in the
         codepoint order among the unassigned characters). But,
         it'd be better to ignore characters unfamiliar to you
         and maybe never used.

         Through "undefChar", any character matching
         "qr/$undefChar/" will be undefined. Through "undefName",
         any character whose name (given in the "table" file as a
         comment) matches "qr/$undefName/" will be undefined.

         ex. Collation weights for beyond-BMP characters are not
         stored in object:

             undefChar => qr/[^\0-\x{fffd}]/,

         -- see 6.6 Case Comparisons, UTS #10.

         By default, lowercase is before uppercase. If the param-
         eter is made true, this is reversed.

         NOTE: This parameter simplemindedly assumes that any
         lowercase/uppercase distinctions must occur in level 3,
         and their weights at level 3 must be same as those men-
         tioned in 7.3.1, UTS #10. If you define your collation
         elements which differs from this requirement, this
         parameter doesn't work validly.

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         -- see 3.2.2 Variable Weighting, UTS #10.

         This key allows to variable weighting for variable col-
         lation elements, which are marked with an ASTERISK in
         the table (NOTE: Many punction marks and symbols are
         variable in allkeys.txt).

            variable => 'blanked', 'non-ignorable', 'shifted', or 'shift-trimmed'.

         These names are case-insensitive. By default (if specif-
         ication is omitted), 'shifted' is adopted.

            'Blanked'        Variable elements are made ignorable at levels 1 through 3;
                             considered at the 4th level.

            'Non-Ignorable'  Variable elements are not reset to ignorable.

            'Shifted'        Variable elements are made ignorable at levels 1 through 3
                             their level 4 weight is replaced by the old level 1 weight.
                             Level 4 weight for Non-Variable elements is 0xFFFF.

            'Shift-Trimmed'  Same as 'shifted', but all FFFF's at the 4th level
                             are trimmed.

     Methods for Collation

     "@sorted = $Collator->sort(@not_sorted)"
         Sorts a list of strings.

     "$result = $Collator->cmp($a, $b)"
         Returns 1 (when $a is greater than $b) or 0 (when $a is
         equal to $b) or -1 (when $a is lesser than $b).

     "$result = $Collator->eq($a, $b)"
     "$result = $Collator->ne($a, $b)"
     "$result = $Collator->lt($a, $b)"
     "$result = $Collator->le($a, $b)"
     "$result = $Collator->gt($a, $b)"
     "$result = $Collator->ge($a, $b)"
         They works like the same name operators as theirs.

            eq : whether $a is equal to $b.
            ne : whether $a is not equal to $b.
            lt : whether $a is lesser than $b.
            le : whether $a is lesser than $b or equal to $b.
            gt : whether $a is greater than $b.
            ge : whether $a is greater than $b or equal to $b.

     "$sortKey = $Collator->getSortKey($string)"
         -- see 4.3 Form Sort Key, UTS #10.

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         Returns a sort key.

         You compare the sort keys using a binary comparison and
         get the result of the comparison of the strings using

            $Collator->getSortKey($a) cmp $Collator->getSortKey($b)

               is equivalent to

            $Collator->cmp($a, $b)

     "$sortKeyForm = $Collator->viewSortKey($string)"
         Converts a sorting key into its representation form. If
         "UCA_Version" is 8, the output is slightly different.

            use Unicode::Collate;
            my $c = Unicode::Collate->new();
            print $c->viewSortKey("Perl"),"\n";

            # output:
            # [0B67 0A65 0B7F 0B03 | 0020 0020 0020 0020 | 0008 0002 0002 0002 | FFFF FFFF FFFF FFFF]
            #  Level 1               Level 2               Level 3               Level 4

     Methods for Searching

     DISCLAIMER: If "preprocess" or "normalization" parameter is
     true for $Collator, calling these methods ("index", "match",
     "gmatch", "subst", "gsubst") is croaked, as the position and
     the length might differ from those on the specified string.
     (And "rearrange" and "hangul_terminator" parameters are

     The "match", "gmatch", "subst", "gsubst" methods work like
     "m//", "m//g", "s///", "s///g", respectively, but they are
     not aware of any pattern, but only a literal substring.

     "$position = $Collator->index($string, $substring[, $position])"
     "($position, $length) = $Collator->index($string, $substring[,
         If $substring matches a part of $string, returns the
         position of the first occurrence of the matching part in
         scalar context; in list context, returns a two-element
         list of the position and the length of the matching

         If $substring does not match any part of $string,
         returns "-1" in scalar context and an empty list in list

         e.g. you say

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           my $Collator = Unicode::Collate->new( normalization => undef, level => 1 );
                                              # (normalization => undef) is REQUIRED.
           my $str = "Ich mu_ studieren Perl.";
           my $sub = "MSS";
           my $match;
           if (my($pos,$len) = $Collator->index($str, $sub)) {
               $match = substr($str, $pos, $len);

         and get "mu_" in $match since "mu_" is primary equal to

     "$match_ref = $Collator->match($string, $substring)"
     "($match)   = $Collator->match($string, $substring)"
         If $substring matches a part of $string, in scalar con-
         text, returns a reference to the first occurrence of the
         matching part ($match_ref is always true if matches,
         since every reference is true); in list context, returns
         the first occurrence of the matching part.

         If $substring does not match any part of $string,
         returns "undef" in scalar context and an empty list in
         list context.


             if ($match_ref = $Collator->match($str, $sub)) { # scalar context
                 print "matches [$$match_ref].\n";
             } else {
                 print "doesn't match.\n";


             if (($match) = $Collator->match($str, $sub)) { # list context
                 print "matches [$match].\n";
             } else {
                 print "doesn't match.\n";

     "@match = $Collator->gmatch($string, $substring)"
         If $substring matches a part of $string, returns all the
         matching parts (or matching count in scalar context).

         If $substring does not match any part of $string,
         returns an empty list.

     "$count = $Collator->subst($string, $substring, $replacement)"
         If $substring matches a part of $string, the first
         occurrence of the matching part is replaced by $replace-
         ment ($string is modified) and return $count (always
         equals to 1).

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         $replacement can be a "CODEREF", taking the matching
         part as an argument, and returning a string to replace
         the matching part (a bit similar to

     "$count = $Collator->gsubst($string, $substring, $replacement)"
         If $substring matches a part of $string, all the
         occurrences of the matching part is replaced by
         $replacement ($string is modified) and return $count.

         $replacement can be a "CODEREF", taking the matching
         part as an argument, and returning a string to replace
         the matching part (a bit similar to


           my $Collator = Unicode::Collate->new( normalization => undef, level => 1 );
                                              # (normalization => undef) is REQUIRED.
           my $str = "Camel donkey zebra came\x{301}l CAMEL horse cAm\0E\0L...";
           $Collator->gsubst($str, "camel", sub { "<b>$_[0]</b>" });

           # now $str is "<b>Camel</b> donkey zebra <b>came\x{301}l</b> <b>CAMEL</b> horse <b>cAm\0E\0L</b>...";
           # i.e., all the camels are made bold-faced.

     Other Methods

     "%old_tailoring = $Collator->change(%new_tailoring)"
         Change the value of specified keys and returns the
         changed part.

             $Collator = Unicode::Collate->new(level => 4);

             $Collator->eq("perl", "PERL"); # false

             %old = $Collator->change(level => 2); # returns (level => 4).

             $Collator->eq("perl", "PERL"); # true

             $Collator->change(%old); # returns (level => 2).

             $Collator->eq("perl", "PERL"); # false

         Not all "(key,value)"s are allowed to be changed. See
         also @Unicode::Collate::ChangeOK and

         In the scalar context, returns the modified collator
         (but it is not a clone from the original).

             $Collator->change(level => 2)->eq("perl", "PERL"); # true

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             $Collator->eq("perl", "PERL"); # true; now max level is 2nd.

             $Collator->change(level => 4)->eq("perl", "PERL"); # false

     "$version = $Collator->version()"
         Returns the version number (a string) of the Unicode
         Standard which the "table" file used by the collator
         object is based on. If the table does not include a ver-
         sion line (starting with @version), returns "unknown".

         Returns the tracking version number of UTS #10 this
         module consults.

         Returns the version number of UTS #10 this module con-


     No method will be exported.


     Though this module can be used without any "table" file, to
     use this module easily, it is recommended to install a table
     file in the UCA format, by copying it under the directory <a
     place in @INC>/Unicode/Collate.

     The most preferable one is "The Default Unicode Collation
     Element Table" (aka DUCET), available from the Unicode
     Consortium's website:


        http://www.unicode.org/Public/UCA/latest/allkeys.txt (latest version)

     If DUCET is not installed, it is recommended to copy the
     file from
     http://www.unicode.org/Public/UCA/latest/allkeys.txt to <a
     place in @INC>/Unicode/Collate/allkeys.txt manually.


         Use of the "normalization" parameter requires the
         Unicode::Normalize module (see Unicode::Normalize).

         If you need not it (say, in the case when you need not
         handle any combining characters), assign "normalization
         => undef" explicitly.

         -- see 6.5 Avoiding Normalization, UTS #10.

     Conformance Test

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         The Conformance Test for the UCA is available under

         For CollationTest_SHIFTED.txt, a collator via
         "Unicode::Collate->new( )" should be used; for
         CollationTest_NON_IGNORABLE.txt, a collator via
         "Unicode::Collate->new(variable => "non-ignorable",
         level => 3)".

         Unicode::Normalize is required to try The Conformance

     The Unicode::Collate module for perl was written by SADAHIRO
     Tomoyuki, <SADAHIRO@cpan.org>. This module is Copyright(C)
     2001-2005, SADAHIRO Tomoyuki. Japan. All rights reserved.

     This module is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
     modify it under the same terms as Perl itself.

     The file Unicode/Collate/allkeys.txt was copied directly
     from <http://www.unicode.org/Public/UCA/4.1.0/allkeys.txt>.
     This file is Copyright (c) 1991-2005 Unicode, Inc. All
     rights reserved. Distributed under the Terms of Use in


     Unicode Collation Algorithm - UTS #10

     The Default Unicode Collation Element Table (DUCET)

     The conformance test for the UCA


     Hangul Syllable Type

     Unicode Normalization Forms - UAX #15

perl v5.8.8                2005-02-05                          14

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