MirBSD manpage: basename(3p), dirname(3p), File::Basename(3p), fileparse(3p)

File::Basename(3pPerl Programmers Reference GuiFile::Basename(3p)


     File::Basename - Parse file paths into directory, filename
     and suffix.


         use File::Basename;

         ($name,$path,$suffix) = fileparse($fullname,@suffixlist);
         $name = fileparse($fullname,@suffixlist);

         $basename = basename($fullname,@suffixlist);
         $dirname  = dirname($fullname);


     These routines allow you to parse file paths into their
     directory, filename and suffix.

     NOTE: "dirname()" and "basename()" emulate the behaviours,
     and quirks, of the shell and C functions of the same name.
     See each function's documentation for details.  If your con-
     cern is just parsing paths it is safer to use File::Spec's
     "splitpath()" and "splitdir()" methods.

     It is guaranteed that

         # Where $path_separator is / for Unix, \ for Windows, etc...
         dirname($path) . $path_separator . basename($path);

     is equivalent to the original path for all systems but VMS.

             my($filename, $directories, $suffix) = fileparse($path);
             my($filename, $directories, $suffix) = fileparse($path, @suffixes);
             my $filename                         = fileparse($path, @suffixes);

         The "fileparse()" routine divides a file path into its
         $directories, $filename and (optionally) the filename

         $directories contains everything up to and including the
         last directory separator in the $path including the
         volume (if applicable). The remainder of the $path is
         the $filename.

              # On Unix returns ("baz", "/foo/bar/", "")

              # On Windows returns ("baz", "C:\foo\bar\", "")

              # On Unix returns ("", "/foo/bar/baz/", "")

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         If @suffixes are given each element is a pattern (either
         a string or a "qr//") matched against the end of the
         $filename.  The matching portion is removed and becomes
         the $suffix.

              # On Unix returns ("baz", "/foo/bar", ".txt")
              fileparse("/foo/bar/baz", qr/\.[^.]*/);

         If type is non-Unix (see "fileparse_set_fstype()") then
         the pattern matching for suffix removal is performed
         case-insensitively, since those systems are not case-
         sensitive when opening existing files.

         You are guaranteed that "$directories . $filename .
         $suffix" will denote the same location as the original

             my $filename = basename($path);
             my $filename = basename($path, @suffixes);

         This function is provided for compatibility with the
         Unix shell command basename(1).  It does NOT always
         return the file name portion of a path as you might
         expect.  To be safe, if you want the file name portion
         of a path use "fileparse()".

         "basename()" returns the last level of a filepath even
         if the last level is clearly directory.  In effect, it
         is acting like "pop()" for paths.  This differs from
         "fileparse()"'s behaviour.

             # Both return "bar"

         @suffixes work as in "fileparse()" except all regex
         metacharacters are quoted.

             # These two function calls are equivalent.
             my $filename = basename("/foo/bar/baz.txt",  ".txt");
             my $filename = fileparse("/foo/bar/baz.txt", qr/\Q.txt\E/);

         Also note that in order to be compatible with the shell
         command, "basename()" does not strip off a suffix if it
         is identical to the remaining characters in the

         This function is provided for compatibility with the
         Unix shell command dirname(1) and has inherited some of
         its quirks.  In spite of its name it does NOT always

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         return the directory name as you might expect.  To be
         safe, if you want the directory name of a path use

         Only on VMS (where there is no ambiguity between the
         file and directory portions of a path) and AmigaOS (pos-
         sibly due to an implementation quirk in this module)
         does "dirname()" work like "fileparse($path)", returning
         just the $directories.

             # On VMS and AmigaOS
             my $directories = dirname($path);

         When using Unix or MSDOS syntax this emulates the dirname(1)
         shell function which is subtly different from
         how "fileparse()" works.  It returns all but the last
         level of a file path even if the last level is clearly a
         directory. In effect, it is not returning the directory
         portion but simply the path one level up acting like
         "chop()" for file paths.

         Also unlike "fileparse()", "dirname()" does not include
         a trailing slash on its returned path.

             # returns /foo/bar.  fileparse() would return /foo/bar/

             # also returns /foo/bar despite the fact that baz is clearly a
             # directory.  fileparse() would return /foo/bar/baz/

             # returns '.'.  fileparse() would return 'foo/'

         Under VMS, if there is no directory information in the
         $path, then the current default device and directory is

           my $type = fileparse_set_fstype();
           my $previous_type = fileparse_set_fstype($type);

         Normally File::Basename will assume a file path type
         native to your current operating system (ie. /foo/bar
         style on Unix, \foo\bar on Windows, etc...). With this
         function you can override that assumption.

         Valid $types are "MacOS", "VMS", "AmigaOS", "OS2",
         "RISCOS", "MSWin32", "DOS" (also "MSDOS" for backwards
         bug compatibility), "Epoc" and "Unix" (all
         case-insensitive).  If an unrecognized $type is given
         "Unix" will be assumed.

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         If you've selected VMS syntax, and the file specifica-
         tion you pass to one of these routines contains a "/",
         they assume you are using Unix emulation and apply the
         Unix syntax rules instead, for that function call only.


     dirname(1), basename(1), File::Spec

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